Protection of populations and services territories
In accordance with the Regulation of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 11, 2005 No. 206 "On the Federal Medical-Biological Agency", the Federal Medical and Biological Agency organizes holding of medical and sanitary events to prevent, identify causes, location and emergency recovery, radiation, chemical and biological accidents and incidents, spread of infectious diseases and mass non-infectious diseases (poisoning).
The following regulations are the basis for organizing of emergency response in the FMBA system of Russia:
"The Regulation on a unified state system of prevention and liquidation of emergency recovery", approved by the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dated December 30, 2003 No. 794 (as amended by Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dated July 16, 2009 No. 577);
the order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation of November 28, 2006 No. 803 "On approval of regulations on operational subsystems of All-Russian service of disaster medicine and Reserves of medical resources of unified state system of emergency prevention and recovery".
Authority to implement the function performed is fulfilled by the FMBA of Russia and its subordinate practical health institutions (health and sanitary units, clinics, hygiene and epidemiology centers, district health centers of the FMBA of Russia, territorial bodies of the FMBA of Russia), located in the immediate vicinity from organizations with very dangerous labor conditions.
62 chemical, 87 radiation and 130 general groups and 13 anti-epidemical groups have been created in the basis of health and sanitary units, clinics, hygiene and epidemiology centers, district health centers of the FMBA of Russia. Institutions operate in 3 regimes – daily activities, high alert regime and emergency regime.
Within daily operations specialists of industrial and health laboratories, which are part of hygiene and epidemiology centers of the FMBA of Russia – take samples of air and water from open water and public water network, samples of the snow cover, samples of food and agricultural products and wild products of vegetable and animal origin used in food by population and hold radiation monitoring using mobile radiological laboratories, using portable radiometers to measure the exposure dose.
The studies of objects from the environment for maintenance of man-made radionuclides including monitoring of waste water plants are being conducted.
In the event of emergency (radiation accidents) high alert groups in centers are ready to make preliminary indication of radioactive contaminations within few hours and to make a final indication of radionuclides (isotopic composition, dose calculation) during the day and provide recommendations for action to protect workers and the public. The same scheme is applicable in case of terrorist attacks with the use of ionizing radiation source.
On the basis of the Federal Medical and Biophysical Center named after A.I. Burnazyan there was created an Emergency Medical Radiation Dosimetry Center (EMRDC), which is a unit of permanent readiness for recovery from radiation accidents. This unit is functionally a part of the emergency response system of Rosatom and if necessary may be transferred for strengthening to local health authorities to assess the current radiation situation and make decisions as to protection of workers and the people involved.
With a view to the most timely and complete obtaining of operational information and data exchange EMRDC interacts with the Situation and Crisis Centre (SCC) of Rosatom, Crisis Center of "Rosenergoatom" (CC) and Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at leading specialized research institutes included in the system of emergency response of Rosatom. To improve efficiency and timely response in 2010 there were created two branch of EMRDC in St. Petersburg on the basis of Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research Institute of Industrial and Marine Medicine of the FMBA of Russia and Ozersk city of Chelyabinsk region on the basis of Southern Urals Biophysics Institute of the FMBA of Russia.
Annually there are trainings of departments of the FMBA of Russia.
In accidents involving chemical factors including while implementation of program for destruction of chemical weapons, scientific and methodical support of medical units to be prepared and act in emergency situations is hold by Research Institute of Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology (Volgograd city) and by Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology (St. Petersburg city), Poison Center of the FMBA of Russia (Clinical Hospital No. 123, Odintsovo city, Moscow region).
It should be noted that organization of emergency medical care and activities for timely rectification of the consequences of accidents is made strictly in accordance with specific of primary production, in close relationship with relevant services of industrial ministries, departments and enterprises, All-Russian Services of Emergency Medicine, territorial health units.
Departments of Federal State Education Institution "Institution of Advanced Training of the FMBA of Russia" hold systematic training of physicians in radiation medicine, health-care support of destruction of chemical weapons. The training program of each department of the Institute includes teaching of individual issues of disaster medicine. Every year more than 2.5 thousand employees of health institutions of the FMBA of Russia are trained on the basis of the Institute. In 2006 the Department of Occupational Medicine, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology developed the course "Clinical Toxicology". The "Center for Emergency Conditions" under the Institute of Advanced Training of the FMBA of Russia trains doctors and nurses how to act in emergency situations, including – radiation and chemical.